GIS Meets Large Language Models: A New Era of Spatial Analysis

The Geographic Information System (GIS) industry, a cornerstone of modern data analysis and decision-making, is on the brink of a revolutionary change. This transformation is being driven by the integration of Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-3 and GPT-4, which are part of the recent advancements in generative models. These models have demonstrated a strong understanding of human natural language, enabling them to perform tasks in various fields, including reasoning, creative writing, code generation, translation, and information retrieval. As a result, LLMs have been increasingly used as the decision-making core of digital autonomous agents, advancing the development of AI-powered systems. This integration of LLMs into GIS is set to make spatial analysis faster, easier, and more accessible to a broader audience, marking a significant leap in the GIScience community.

The Advent of Autonomous GIS

In a recent paper titled "Autonomous GIS: the next-generation AI-powered GIS" by Li and Ning (2023), the authors introduce the concept of Autonomous GIS [1]. This is an AI-powered geographic information system that leverages the general abilities of LLMs in natural language understanding, reasoning, and coding. The idea is to use these capabilities to address spatial problems with automatic spatial data collection, analysis, and visualization.

The authors envision that Autonomous GIS will achieve five autonomous goals: self-generating, self-organizing, self-verifying, self-executing, and self-growing. In other words, the system will be capable of generating its tasks, organizing its resources, verifying its operations, executing its functions, and growing its knowledge base, all with minimal human intervention.

This vision of Autonomous GIS is a significant departure from traditional GIS, which relies heavily on manual operations. It represents a shift towards a more autonomous, intelligent system that can independently handle complex spatial problems. This transformation is made possible by the remarkable capabilities of LLMs, which serve as the reasoning core of Autonomous GIS.

By adopting LLM as the reasoning core, the researchers have essentially created a system that can understand complex spatial problems expressed in natural language, reason about these problems, and generate code to solve them. This is a significant advancement in the field of GIS and opens up a wide range of possibilities for future research and applications.

LLM-Geo: A Prototype System

The researchers developed a prototype system called LLM-Geo, which uses the GPT-4 API in a Python environment [2]. This system demonstrates what an autonomous GIS looks like and how it delivers expected results without human intervention. Although still in its infancy, LLM-Geo shows a potential path towards next-generation AI-powered GIS.

Case Studies

The researchers presented three case studies to demonstrate the capabilities of LLM-Geo [2]:

  1. Counting population living near hazardous wastes: This case study aimed to find the population living with hazardous wastes in North Carolina, US, and map their distribution. LLM-Geo successfully returned accurate results, including aggregated numbers, graphs, and maps.
  2. Human mobility data retrieval and trend visualization: This task investigated the mobility changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in France in 2020. LLM-Geo was used to retrieve mobility data from the ODT Explorer using REST API, compute, and visualize the monthly change rate compared to January 2020.
  3. COVID-19 death rate analysis and visualization at the US county level: This case study investigated the spatial distribution of the COVID-19 death rate and the association between the death rate and the proportion of senior residents at the US county level. The task asked for a map to show the county-level death rate distribution and a scatter plot to show the correlation and trend line of the death rate with the senior resident rate.

Our Example: Humanitarian Interventions

Imagine a humanitarian organization looking to understand population movement and water quality data in a specific region. Using LLM-Geo, they could input a task such as:

"Find the population movement patterns in the past month in region X and correlate them with changes in water quality data and available water sources. Generate a map to show the spatial distribution of population movement and water quality changes."

LLM-Geo would then use Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) to retrieve the relevant GIS data, analyze it, and generate the requested map. This could significantly enhance the organization's ability to plan and execute their interventions.


The integration of LLMs into GIS is still in its early stages, but the potential is enormous. As the GIScience community dedicates more effort to the research and development of autonomous GIS, we can expect to see significant advancements in spatial analysis, making it easier, faster, and more accessible to a broader audience.


  1. Li Z., Ning H., 2023. Autonomous GIS: the next-generation AI-powered GIS. arXiv.2305.06453
  2. LLM-Geo GitHub Repository. Available at: